In India, cultural tourism plays a significant role in the country’s economy. This type of tourism focuses directly on local people. Revista De Turism – Studii Si Cercetari In Turism, (11), 34-37. Wildlife is a term that refers to both flora and fauna components of the natural environment. Furthermore, slow tourism is not only attractive to travellers who are concerned about the environment, although it is often associated as a form of low-carbon travel (Chiesa & Gautam, 2009). The first one is about spending at least one week of a holiday at one place by staying in vacation rentals instead of holes. One of these sectors is the tourism sector (Fullagar, Wilson & Markwell, 2012). Local food may be a successful tool for differentiation, as tourists perceive food as authentic (Sims, 2009). Tourism has various forms on the basis of purpose of visit and alternative forms. Moreover, different forms of alternative tourism, as ecotourism, sustainable tourism and slow tourism have emerged that have certain characteristics in common, regarding the quality of the time spent on holiday. He was referring to the difficulty of adapting to foreign cultures. Archaeotourism / Archaeological Tourism An alternative form of cultural tourism, which aims to promote the passion for historical- archaeology and the conservation of historical sites. Airplanes are one major form of transportation for travelers and tourists. In Samoa and Vanuatu, tourism generates the majority of export earnings. Adventure activities may expose a higher risk with lots of excitement. Slowing down while being on holiday is described by the term ‘slow travel’ or ‘slow tourism’ (Rawlinson, 2011). It promotes balanced growth, keeping in mind the local environment, and socio-cultural concerns. Ethnic tourism involves travel for the purpose of observing the cultural expression of lifestyles and customs of the indigenous and exotic people. Instead, they should avoid slower modes of transport, such as ferries, busses and slow trains as ‘speed destroys the connection with the landscape’ (Gardner, 2009). Tourism: a new form of colonialism? Balloons are filled with light gas either hydrogen or helium gas. It developed with respect to the slow food and Città Slow movement (Warren, 2011; Petrini, 2007). Furthermore, it has been concluded as ‘a significant alternative to ‘sun and sea’ and cultural tourism’ (Lumsdon & McGrath, 2011). Cultural tourism helps in widening one’s knowledge about people’s places, their ways of life, cultural traditions, etc. In Tonga it is the largest single source, about five times as that of agriculture and fisheries combined. In this fifth of six literature reviews Julia Terhorst talks about discovering new forms of tourism: slow tourism. Ethnic tourism involves direct interaction with the authentic culture of the ingenious people. The rich forested slopes have been converted into barren rocks due to the development of activities such as roads, hostels, and trekking trails. Many tour operators and travel agents are nowadays specialized in packaging tours specially designed for senior citizens. The special interest tourists look for unusual experiences and not for the regular routine itineraries, which include attractions to cater to the needs of the mass tourist. The slow movement is an antidote to the increasingly faster global activities. Mostly young people are attracted to undertake adventure tourism as it involves risk and excitement. For example, going for a trek through dense forests with a tent to live in and a campfire to cook. The tourism industry has felt the need to expand the destination experience beyond pleasure and give the tourist a completely unique experience in an area that is of special interest to the tourists. Industrial Tourism 9. Copyright 2016 TDM | All Rights Reserved. Dickinson, Lumsdon & Robbins (2011) created a model that shows that slow travellers form a continuum from ‘soft’ to ‘hard’ travellers. define three different pillars of slow travel. These regions may offer minimal facilities and comforts. Another point mentioned regarding the destination experience is the fact that slow traveller rather live at a destination instead of just staying there. The tour packaged includes a tour escort or tour guide who keeps the senior citizen occupied with entertainment and activities suitable for their age. The same accounts for finding a description for slow travellers, as they cannot be classified in demographic terms of segmentation. Gun Tourism. An airplane is a powered flying vessel with wings. The study by Sims has been conducted in two different places in England. Furthermore, it should be researched whether there are cultural differences among slow travellers. These were about binding local inhabitants to their localities and emerged as a community initiative for residents (Dickinson, 2010). Application instructions: Master of Arts in TDM program, Insights: Dr. Rami K. Isaac at UNWTO roundtable, Experiences – PhD on Calculation of Regional Economic Impacts of Tourism, Thesis publication: Marine Based Tourism (MBT), Thesis publication: Creative Tourism in Bali’s Rural Communities, Thesis publication: Master of Arts in Tourism Destination Management, Climbing famous Uluru (Ayers Rock) in Australia: Conflicting perspectives amongst stakeholders at its peak. However, the reasons may be different for various demographic groups, ranging from economic or budgetary reasons, environmental interests, the consumers want to experience the destination itself and the desire to use a certain mode of transportation (Rawlinson, 2011). Cannabis vacay, anyone? Nowadays with the growing concern for the environment, alternative forms of tourism led to the emergence of travel agents and tour operators to specialize in ecotourism, heritage tourism, cultural tourism, etc. & Lumsdon, D. & Robbins, D.K. The second component is similar to the definition above staying close to home and looking what ‘must-sees’ are in the surrounding (Nistireanu, Dorobantu, & Tuclea, 2011). As the previous section showed it is hard to clearly define slow travel. Alternative forms of tourism are different from regular tourism. Tourism, the act and process of spending time away from home in pursuit of recreation, relaxation, and pleasure, while making use of the commercial provision of services. Most Visited Countries: USA, UK, Canada, etc. It is the temporary short-term movement of people to destinations outside the place where they normally live &work includes the activities they indulge in at the destination as well as all facilities and services specially created to meet their needs. Medical trips are new form of tourism. The main aim of ethnic tourism is to gain first-hand experience of the way of life and cultural artifacts of the local people. The slow movement is an antidote to the increasingly faster global activities. It should be researched whether the outcomes are different in other cultural settings. Recently in India, rural tourism has gained importance. Condition: New. Further, wildlife has gained popularity in the last decade. Besides, slow traveller should also get in touch with the local community and behave in the same way and searching for opportunities to give something back to them (Gardner, 2009). It is for all those who want to slow down and are fed with pace, but also for those who want to explore the opportunities of being unlike and in the context of tourism, moving differently (Fullagar, & Wilson & Markwell, 2012). They prefer to share or use the services of the locals. Tourism already plays an important role in the economies of Palau, Fiji, Samoa and Vanuatu. Without a doubt this is the most macabre type of tourism we could ever imagine, and unfortunately,... 2. Birth Tourism. The slow movement is present in many parts of everyday life and one can easily get the feeling that the adjective slow is added to all phenomenon, industries and sectors. (2011) The Evolution of Slow Travel – International – March 2011, retrieved October 22, 2012, from Mintel Oxygen, Sims, R. (2009) Food, place and authenticity: local food and the sustainable tourism experience; Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 17:3, 321-336, Warren, J.P. (2011): A review of ‘Slow travel and tourism’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 19:7, 916-918, […] does Airbnb Experiences where a local host takes you on a tour. Special interest tourism has evolved from a search for new avenues. Hotel and Lodge (Motel, Inn et al) Of course, it is a must for visitors to look for places to lodge when … This literature review examines the new market segment of slow travellers that can be characterized by travelling shorter distances, at a greater emphasis on the travel experience by having low-carbon consumption. Another approach describes two components of slow travel. He and I both are interested in Slow Tourism (him as its something he can offer his guests, me as its an interesting off shoot of ecotourism) […], This is the blog of the Master of Arts in Tourism Destination Management at Breda University of Applied Sciences. The main motive of this type of traveler is to experience and get an insight way of the local lifestyles. Furthermore, the travel motivations of slow travellers and their destination experiences are studied. Sustainable tourism is only achievable through the development of alternative and new forms of tourism. Between the 1970s and early 1980s new forms of tourism emerged in developing countries as an alternative solution to the “undesired” type of tourism “the mass tourism” or “the conventional/commercial tourism” or “the traditional tourism”. A new form of tourism that focuses on visiting sites associated with death and tragedy is growing in popularity. Marijuana Tourism. It is a product of modern social arrangements, beginning in western Europe in the 17th century, although it has antecedents in Classical antiquity. Tourists may travel to experience a change in climate and place and learn something new, enjoy pleasant scenery, or to know more about the culture of a destination. and is unique to China natural and cultural tourism resources as the carrier. Su… But now it has become popular even in India. Slow travellers who choose this form of travelling out of environmental considerations often make the conscious decision to avoid air transportation and the usage of cars unless it is really necessary. Many young enthusiasts and nature lovers as well as adventure seekers are exploring this new area of tourism. In her study Sims (2009) only focused on two destinations in England. Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and thee business of operating tours. Bicycle Tours 4. The limitless resources of space are soon becoming a profitable business. People have become more curious to know more about foreign land, their people, and their culture. Adventure Tourism 2. tourism or tourism of postmodernism (Rojek and Urry, 2002; Williams, 2004) in its various forms, and to try and forecast its future development, the future changes that will involve the tourist industry and the impact of the above on society at large. In order to fully understand slow travellers in terms of motivation and drivers behind their decisions to engage in slow tourism, it would be interesting to research the relation between the distances to be travelled, the time and the price for certain modes of transportation. INTRODUCTION. Tourism is the movement of the tourists from one place to another place. Rural Tourism 12. Tourism development activities such as the construction of hotels, resorts, roads, tourist infrastructure, etc. Although there is no definition for slow tourism that is widely agreed upon, Dickinson et al. These tourists prefer to stay in some quiet and relaxed destination preferably at a hill resort, beach resort or island resort. Slow tourism has been directly associated with the slow food movement that developed in Italy during the late 1980s (Dickenson, 2002). Special interest tourism can be defined as people traveling to a particular destination with the purpose of fulfilling a particular interest, which can be pursued only at that destination. It has empowered the tourism business managers and tourists to explore, discover and reach new places by facilitating online travel and accommodation bookings, and more. Research has shown that slow tourism is an emerging market segment that is forecasted to grow annually 10% in Western Europe during the next five years. In contrast to other forms of holiday, slow travel includes both the experience of the travel and the destination itself (Dickinson, 2010; Rawlinson, 2011; Lumsdon & McGrath, 2010). Cultural tourism gives a visitor insight knowledge of: Way of people dress, jewelry, dance, architecture, painting, and music. But with change in times, tourism too has taken various forms, some of which are described hereunder. In fact slow travellers can start their journey when stepping out of the doorway and their destination can only be a few kilometres away. In the East, tourism is embedded as a dominant industry and resembles that of a new form of neocolonialism, and with that, can shape the orients cultural identity, as well as its architecture and people of the society which can be seen throughout the novel The God of Small Things, as the influx of tourism reinforces neocolonialism’s ideals into an oriental society. These focuses are similar to the interests that were identified by Gardner who stated that slow travel is a state of mind that should start at one’s home by exploring nearby places of interest and the suggestion that slow tourists should travel slow and avoid air travel. Ecotourism usually describes tourism activities that are conducted in harmony with nature. Maybe some will rush to connect this specific type of tourism with sex tourism, but they better... 3. Other motivations for soft slow travellers may be that they enjoy the pace of travelling slow, the social setting or the cultural excursions (Dickinson, Lumsdon & Robbins, 2011). As everyone can engage in slow travel it is hard to draw an exact definition for this market segment (Rawlinson, 2011). Other popular forms of adventure on land can be wall climbing, trekking, mountain biking, rock climbing, and camping. One of these sectors is the tourism sector (Fullagar, Wilson & Markwell, 2012). Ecotourism is one of the popular forms of alternative tourism. Include extreme sports like hiking in natural environments, kayaking, climbing, snorkeling, rafting, paragliding, among… Tourism is an important source of export earnings for many PICs. Nowadays tourists undertake var… Atomic Tourism 3. This form of tourism fosters environmental principles with an emphasis on visiting and observing natural areas. This literature review has shown that the motivations of slow travellers to engage in this form of tourism are divers and range from travellers who are highly concerned about the environment and travellers who only travel slow, because they like cycling or hiking for example. New trends and tendencies in tourism can be properly understood only in the context of the In India, from the special interest tourist’s point of view, culture is the most popular range of special interests that a tourist may pursue. Other aerial adventures sports include paragliding, parachute jumping, hand gliding, bungee jumping, etc. It is for all those who want to slow down and are fed with pace, but also for those who want to explore the op… China's tourism and cultural integration of new forms of teaching. New York: Columbia University Press, Rawlinson, J. Scuba diving and snorkeling are other famous water adventure activities. Another weakness is that the study was conducted only in England, so the outcome might be different for other destination. This concept of tourism is common in the West because of the nuclear family concept. 2.2 Ecotourism and other Forms of Tourism Mass tourism remained dominant in the world tourism market for a long time. Beach Tourism 5. Sex Tourism 13. Sports Tourism 15. Alternative forms of tourism aim at seeking a transition from impersonal, traditional mass tourism to establishing cordial rapport between visitors and the local hosts. As mentioned earlier slow travellers have a tendency to consume local food products more often than other tourists. Thus ecotourism can be defined as purposeful travel to natural areas to understand the cultural and natural history of the environment, taking care of the ecosystem while producing economic opportunities that make the conservation of natural resources financially beneficial to the local citizens. Some call it exploitative, and some call it respectful. Tourists nowadays are shifting their interest in travel to a new destination. Tourists, who seek break from the stress of day to day life, devote their holiday to rest and relaxation, refresh themselves. However, different groups of people might experience both aspects differently. There are two types of adventure tourism. However, it is not only attractive to travellers who are concerned about the environment, but without doubt the low-carbon emission is a significant factor of slow travel (Rawlinson, 2011). Realizing the economic benefits of the country, the government is promoting wildlife tourism to a vast extent. It can also be criticized that three pairs were interviewed as their respondents might be biased because of the partner’s presence. As a result, the Government of India is marketing rural tourism through its “Incredible India” promotional campaign. Petrini, C. (2001) Flow Food: The Case for Taste. The final focus is about the richness of a travel experience at a destination or the importance of a journey (Dickinson, 2011). Art Tourism Focuses on exposure to different forms of art like paintings, sculpture, and other forms of art. Rudyard Kipling once famously wrote "East is East and West is West and never the twain shall meet." These are further divided into many types according to their nature. The trilateral relationship ecotourism – sustainable tourism – slow travel among nature in the line with authentic tourism lovers. Hopmansstraat 24817 JT BredaThe Netherlands, MASTER OF ARTS IN TOURISM DESTINATION MANAGEMENT. Ecotourism 7. In her article ‘Food, place and authenticity: local food and the sustainable tourism experience’ Rebecca Sims argues that local food can enhance the tourist experience as consumers are connected to the region and its perceived culture and heritage. Critically discuss this statement with reference to one or more examples of alternative tourism in developed or developing countries. Beside ‘hard slow travellers’ there are also various forms of ‘soft slow travellers’, however, a distinction between both groups cannot always be clearly made. Although, Rawlinson mentions budgetary reasons of tourists engaging in the slow movement, it would be interesting to research the link between the distance to be travelled and the price for certain modes of transportation in relation to time. Tourism Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure, or business purposes.The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes" Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity. To receive email updates for new posts, just enter your email address: Mgr. These tourists have been identified as ‘hard slow travellers’ who often show environmental concern during their everyday life. This gives travellers from highly developed countries the opportunity to return to forgotten places and experience those areas (Nistireanu, Dorobantu & Tuclea, 2011). The slow movement is present in many parts of everyday life and one can easily get the feeling that the adjective slow is added to all phenomenon, industries and sectors. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Types of tourism: Subcategories. This is a new upcoming form of tourism where people will buy tickets to travel to space for a short duration. These tourists normally avoid the services that are used by tourists such as accommodation, transport, and other services. Extreme care is taken to the senior citizen due to their age factor and other health-related issues. However, it has to be mentioned the authors have only interviewed 15 ‘self-identified’ slow travellers, this number might be a little low to produce be representative, but also interviewing ‘other-identified’ slow travellers may have different and new outcomes. Alternative Forms of Tourism. Conclusively, it has been suggested that successful tourist destinations must develop products and services that distinguish the destination from others. Alternative tourism is also popularly famous as a key to sustainable development. Other water adventure sports include deep-sea diving, parasailing, water skiing, water rafting, canoeing, windsurfing, etc. This kind of tourism involves a visit to the local homes, observe, and participate in their traditional rituals, ceremonies, dances, festivals, etc. Nistireanu, P., Dorobantu, M. & Tuclea, C. (2011). The next section is trying to further describe the slow travellers motivations. google.com, pub-8797934119967996, DIRECT, f08c47fec0942fa0, Federation of Hotel and Restaurant Association of India (FHRAI).
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